The ArchiMate modeling language is designed to be compatible with the TOGAF framework; i.e., architects following the guidelines and best practices provided in the TOGAF framework can use the ArchiMate language to cover many of the modeling tasks, including the creation of views based on the various architecture viewpoints suggested in the TOGAF framework. The improvements made in ArchiMate 3.0 enable them seamlessly well integrated together:
- The TOGAF framework and the ArchiMate language overlap in their use of viewpoints, and the concept of an underlying common repository of architectural artifacts and models; i.e., they have a firm common foundation.
- The two standards complement each other with respect to the definition of an architecture development process and the definition of an Enterprise Architecture modeling language.
- The ArchiMate 3.0 standard supports modeling of the architectures throughout the phases of the TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM).
The approximate mapping of the ArchiMate 3.0 modeling language to the TOGAF 9.1 Architecture Development Method (ADM) is described in the Figure below:
Upgrade in the ArchiMate 3.0 Standard for TOGAF Integration
In addition to improvements in core elements in the Business, Application, and Technology Layers, the ArchiMate 3.0 standard adds several extensions that are relevant to an Enterprise Architecture practice:
- A Physical Layer has been added in Version 3.0 as an extension to the Technology Layer, adding structural elements such as facility, equipment, and material. The Physical Layer re-uses the behavior elements of the Technology Layer.
- The Motivation extension contains elements that motivate enterprise design and operation. They include, among others, stakeholder, driver, assessment, goal, requirement, and principle.
- The Implementation and Migration extension models the implementation of all aspects of Enterprise Architectures, as well as the migration between generations of implemented architectures. They include a work package, deliverable, plateau, and gap.
- The Strategy extension provides modeling support for business strategy and capability-based planning. Elements include capability, resource, and course of action.
Using ArchiMate for Developing TOGAF ADM – A Case Study
A number of examples drawn from the ArchiSurance Case Study follow, illustrating extracts of models that might be developed during a TOGAF ADM cycle.
Preliminary Phase: Architecture Principles
Principles in the TOGAF standard are established and maintained as part of the Preliminary Phase. This example shows how principles, their dependencies, and their goals can be represented in a graphical way.
Phase A: Architecture Vision
In the TOGAF standard, Phase A is concerned with establishing a high-level vision of the target architecture, across all the sub-domains of the Enterprise Architecture. An important part of this will be to establish and model the strategy of the business, and show how the architecture, and possible solutions that realize the architecture, implement the strategy.
Example: Strategy View
The Strategy viewpoint allows the Business Architect to model an overview of the courses of action chosen or considered by the enterprise, the capabilities and resources supporting them, the envisaged outcomes, and how these contribute to the organization’s goals and drivers.
Phase B: Business Architecture
Business Architecture models the business-related elements of the Enterprise Architecture. The TOGAF standard mentions that business processes are very important elements, in that they effectively orchestrate the use of all the other elements to create the value allied to the enterprise’s mission. The ArchiMate language is equipped to model the TOGAF Business Architecture graphically. However, the ArchiMate standard proposes a service-orientated architectural style, something that is specified in its core metamodel, as this style promotes maximum flexibility, re-use, and speed of change, at low cost and low risk. Business processes realize business services in this approach, where value is associated with the service.
Example: Business Processes
This example shows how two business processes could be modeled for a Business Architecture. This example shows the two central business processes of ArchiSurance, with their high-level sub-processes.
Phase C: Information Systems Architectures
TOGAF Phase C covers Application and Data Architecture. These are treated as separate architecture subdomains in the TOGAF framework, but in the ArchiMate language data is an aspect of every architectural domain.
Example: Application Co-operation
This example shows how a number of applications co-operate, as well as the main data-flows between the applications.
Example: Information Structure
This example shows how relationships between business objects might be modeled graphically. This is the ArchiMate version of the classic Conceptual Data Model.
A common requirement in Business Architecture is to view the way applications and data support business processes. The figure above is an example of a cross-layer view and several cross-layer views could be constructed across different layers, in accordance with stakeholders’ requirements.
Phase D: Technology Architecture
TOGAF Phase D deals with Technology Architecture, which shows how information technology can be deployed to realize the applications and data requirements defined in Phase C. The ArchiMate standard has a separate layer for Technology Architecture, in which technology such as devices, systems software, DBMS, and communications paths can be represented.
This example shows the main infrastructure components for an enterprise, grouped by location and department. Also, the networks that connect the different devices, and the (application) artifacts deployed on the devices, are shown.
The ArchiMate 3.0 Specification now has a new set of physical elements and their relationships that are based on the Technology Layer. These elements can be used to model physical things like machinery and facilities; a useful example is presented below in the Figure below.
Phases E & F: Opportunities and Solutions, and Migration Planning
The TOGAF ADM continues with Phases E and F, which deal with choosing solutions and planning the implementation and migration of the architecture from the baseline to the target state. The ArchiMate standard has the Implementation and Migration extension to the core language so that this part of the ADM can be described to the Figure below:
Example: Migration View
Modeling EA – Hand-drawn, drawing tool or Modeling Tool?
Actually not very long ago, modeling EA was symbolized by three things: a pencil, a sheet of paper and notations. However, time marches on and technology evolves. Everything seems to be moving towards going digital. But are you ready to make the jump?
A drawing tool offers speed and momentum to their software modeling work. Used efficiently, digital saves you a ton of time such as nice printing, easier for undo and redo, copy and paste, using shape palette or diagram templates, and etc.
Many people assume that drawing tools and modeling tools are two interchangeable concepts but this is far from true. Actually a modeling tool should offer a lot more capabilities added to a drawing tool through they might seem not so obvious for most of the people.
A drawing tool can’t be considered as a modeling tool unless the tool can “understands” the notation of the diagram, i.e. the connection rules between shapes or model elements. The following points list these additional capabilities of a modeling tool over a drawing tool.
|Easy to learn
||Need some time
||Only a simple diagram
||Handle complex diagram
|Shared elements in different or projects
|Model consistency and traceability
|Glossary and terms linked with
|Linkage between models
|Versioning and change management
+ Not all modeling tools support these features (while Visual Paradigm supports all the above)
Need TOGAF ADM Support with ArchiMate?
ArchiMate is a good visual language for modeling EA, but it is not a method that provides steps, techniques for guiding you through the entire EA development process. Although ArchiMate can integrate with TOGAF ADM seamlessly and intrinsically by design, to start an EA project only with pencil and papers would be just like we are doing things in the Stone Age without proper tools.
Even though businesses are aware of the advantages of an EA practice, it has never been an easy task to build an Enterprise Architecture. A problem many organizations face is the inability to identify the place to start, and how to get started. The immaturity of Enterprise Architecture results in gaps and hurdles in the early stages that can stop businesses from progressing further with the scheme. In 2007, Gartner found that 40% of Enterprise Architecture initiatives would be stopped and a later survey in 2015 indicates that 70% of businesses were looking to either start or restart an Enterprise Architecture program.
If you Google around for Enterprise Architecture tooling you will probably uncover two alternatives: Established EA tools with very high price tags, yet they only provide a tree-like structure of repository that contains a set of templates you to edit yourselves. The second alternative would be some drawing tools, such as Visio that require excessive management and juggling of information between multiple applications.
Visual Paradigm Guide-Through Process Tool
TOGAF ADM is the process of developing an enterprise architecture, while Visual Paradigm features a process navigator that guides you through the execution and completion of TOGAF ADM and fully integrated with ArchiMate 3. The figure below shows a screenshot of the TOGAF ADM Guide-Through tool. It shows the steps to perform in phase B of TOGAF ADM.
Broadly speaking, Visual Paradigm features/facilitates the following:
- An ADM process navigator that guides you through the development of enterprise architecture with TOGAF ADM, activity by activity, step by step
- Guide you through the creation of deliverables and artifacts, with clear instructions
- Generate deliverables upon the completion of an ADM phase
- Automatic archiving of deliverables in an Architecture Repository
- Helps you understand TOGAF by providing you with samples
- Provides the tools and diagrams you need in analysis and documentation, which includes ArchiMate 3 diagrams and viewpoints (The Open Group certified), Implementation Plan Diagram, Migration Roadmap, Maturity Analysis, PERT Chart, RACI Chart, Implementation Factor Assessment & Deduction Matrix, Consolidated Gaps, Solutions, & Dependencies Matrix, etc.
- Finally, it is an international award-winning tool with Affordable price with incredible features
Sample Step in Guide-Through Process
Gap Analysis with ArchiMate 3 – Look at the bottom right. It’s a color legend that enables you to effective apply color code to elements in the diagram.
Automatic Deliverable Generation
Sample Screenshot on – Generate TOGAF ADM deliverable once you’ve completed the activities.
Benefits of Visual Paradigm Guide-through Process Approach
- Structure TOGAF ADM into phases, activities, and steps, and embedded with instructions, samples and input references
- Progress Indicator that shows you where you are and the status of completion for phases, activities, and steps
- Perform analysis, diagramming and work incrementally and generate deliverable and report automatically
- Automatically transcribe data from one step to another for further actions or perform different forms of analysis
- Carry forward of the deliverable as input reference from one step to another
- Assign activity or deliverables as a task for different members with time schedule and role to the task manager automatically
- Seamlessly integrate EA, Project Management process with Agile software development process and toolset
Checklist for Choosing an ArchiMate Tool
To conclude, let’s take a look at the items below for what a good ArchiMate tool should support.
- Is it a Certified ArchiMate Tool
- Does it provide the modeling tool capabilities in the table above
- Does it provide ArchiMate Viewpoints for ArchiMate 2 and ArchiMate 3
- Does it fully support TOGAF ADM from Preliminary Phase and A to H phases
- Does it provide electronic architecture cabinet for deliverables and is it configurable
- Can you tailor the process framework to fit your needs
- Does it provide standard TOGAF templates for deliverable development
- Is the process fully automated and easy to use
- Does it support team collaboration
- Does it support automatic deliverables generation
- Does it provide step-by-step embedded instructions, samples, and references
- Does it ask for a reasonable price
- Does it support both ArchiMate modeling support and TOGAF ADM with ArchiMate integrated process support