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Full ArchiMate Viewpoints Guide (Examples Included)

Viewpoints is one of the very important concepts in ArchiMate 3. Each viewpoint contains a dedicated set of ArchiMate elements that allows architect designers to model a specific aspect of an enterprise architecture. The official ArchiMate 3 specification provides 23 ArchiMate example viewpoints for architecture designers to follow. In this ArchiMate viewpoints guide we will go over all these 23 ArchiMate viewpoints, with clear description and ArchiMate diagram examples for each of them.

All the ArchiMate diagram examples in this guide are drawn with Visual Paradigm 's certified ArchiMate tool

What is ArchiMate Viewpoint?

In the ArchiMate language, a viewpoint is a relevant subset of ArchiMate elements and relationships, put together on a diagram in representing a particular part of an architecture.

What are ArchiMate Example Viewpoints?

ArchiMate suggests a set of example viewpoints that can be used as starting points for modeling efforts. Each of these ArchiMate viewpoint comprises elements from different ArchiMate layers, addressing specific stakeholder concerns. Organizations are welcomed to apply any of these viewpoint examples in their architecture model, or to define their own ones.

The example viewpoints suggested by ArchiMate are grouped into four main categories:

  • Basic Viewpoints: Concepts from the three layers of Business, Application, and Technology may be used.
  • Motivation Viewpoints: For modeling motivational aspects of an architecture.
  • Strategy Viewpoints: For describing the strategic aspect of the enterprise by describing the high-level strategic direction and make-up of the enterprise.
  • Implementation and Migration Viewpoints: For modeling the management of architecture change, the transition from baseline to target architecture and relationships between programs and projects.

How to apply the example viewpoints?

It is important to note that the example viewpoints officially published in the ArchiMate specification should not constrain modeling activities. You should modify the example viewpoints or even to define your own viewpoints in addressing specific stakeholder concerns.

Basic Viewpoints

ArchiMate basic viewpoints cover ArchiMate elements and concepts of the three main ArchiMate layers: Business, Application, and Technology. Listed below is a table of ArchiMate 3.0 example viewpoints, grouped into four categories that indicate which the direction and scope they cover:

  1. Composition: Viewpoints that define internal compositions and aggregations of elements.
  2. Support: Viewpoints where you are looking at elements that are supported by other elements. Typically from one layer and upwards to an above layer.
  3. Cooperation: Towards peer elements which cooperate with each other. Typically across aspects.
  4. Realization: Viewpoints where you are looking at elements that realize other elements. Typically from one layer and downwards to a below layer.

Composition:

Name Perspective Concerns
Organization Structure of the enterprise in terms of roles, departments, etc. Identification of competencies, authority, and responsibilities
Information Structure Shows the structure of the information used in the enterprise. Structure and dependencies of the used data and information, consistency and completeness
Technology Infrastructure and platforms underlying the enterprise's information systems in terms of networks, devices, and system software. Stability, security, dependencies, costs of the infrastructure
Layered Provides overview of architecture(s). Consistency, reduction of complexity, impact of change, flexibility
Physical Physical environment and how this relates to IT infrastructure. Relationships and dependencies of the physical environment and how this relates to IT infrastructure

Support:

Name Perspective Concerns
Product Shows the contents of products. Product development, value offered by the products of the enterprise
Application Usage Relates applications to their use in, for example, business processes. Consistency and completeness, reduction of complexity.
Technology Usage Shows how technology is used by applications. Dependencies, performance, scalability

Cooperation:

Name Perspective Concerns
Business Process Cooperation Shows the relationships between various business processes. Dependencies between business processes, consistency and completeness, responsibilities
Application Cooperation Shows application components and their mutual relationships. Relationships and dependencies between applications, orchestration/choreography of services, consistency and completeness, reduction of complexity

Realization:

Name Perspective Concerns
Service Realization Shows how services are realized by the requisite behavior. Added-value of business processes, consistency and completeness, responsibilities
Implementation and Deployment Shows how applications are mapped onto the underlying technology. Structure of application platforms and how they relate to supporting technology

In the coming sections, we will go over all the ArchiMate basic viewpoints in detail. For each viewpoint, the stakeholder(s) targeted, the concerns to address, the purpose and scope are covered. Besides, ArchiMate diagram examples will be provided.

In addition to the specified elements, the Grouping element, Junction, and Or Junction can be used in every viewpoint.

Organization Viewpoint

What is Organization Viewpoint?

The organization viewpoint is used to present the organizational structure of an organization unit such as a corporate, company, a department, or even a network of companies. Typically, the structure is presented in nested way. However, it is not uncommon to present like a traditional organizational chart. The organization viewpoint is commonly used in identifying competencies and responsibilities of an organization unit.

The table below describes Organization Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Enterprise, process and domain architects, managers, employees, shareholders
Concerns Identification of competencies, authority, and responsibilities
Purpose Designing, deciding, informing
Scope Single layer/Single aspect
Elements Business actor, Business role, Business collaboration, Location, Business interface

Organization Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Organization Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Organization Viewpoint Example

Business Process Cooperation Viewpoint

What is Business Process Cooperation Viewpoint?

The business process cooperation viewpoint is used to model the flow of main business processes of an enterprise. It can be used to create a high-level design of business processes, providing operational manager with insight into their dependencies. You can also model the mapping of business processes with business functions, and how business services can be realized by business processes.

The table below describes Business Process Cooperation Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Process and domain architects, operational managers
Concerns Dependencies between business processes, consistency and completeness, responsibilities
Purpose Designing, deciding
Scope Multiple layer/Multiple aspect
Elements Business actor, Business role, Business collaboration, Location, Business interface, Business process/function/interaction, Business event, Business service, Business object, Representation, Application component/collaboration, Application interface, Application process/function/interaction, Application event, Application service, Data object

Business Process Cooperation Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Business Process Cooperation Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Business Cooperation Viewpoint Example

Product Viewpoint

What is Product Viewpoint?

The product viewpoint focuses on the value that the product will offer to the customers. It shows the composition product in terms of the constituting (business, application, or technology) services, and the contract(s) or other agreements involved. You can also show the interfaces through which this product is offered, and the events associated with the product. A product viewpoint is typically used to model the services involved in using the product, which can be a composition of existing services or new services required to be created.

The table below describes Product Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Product developers, product managers, process and domain architects
Concerns Product development, value offered by the products of the enterprise
Purpose Designing, deciding
Scope Multiple layer/Multiple aspect
Elements Business actor, Business role, Business collaboration, Business interface, Business process/function/interaction, Business event, Business service, Business object, Product, Contract, Application component/collaboration, Application interface, Application process/function/interaction, Application event, Application service, Data object, Technology service, Artifact, Material, Value

Product Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Product Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Product Viewpoint Example

Application Cooperation Viewpoint

What is Application Cooperation Viewpoint?

The application cooperation viewpoint presents the information flows between applications components, and the services the components provide and require. People use this viewpoint to create an overview of the application landscape. Besides, this viewpoint can also be used to model the cooperation of services that together support the execution of a business process.

The table below describes Application Cooperation Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Enterprise, process, application, and domain architects
Concerns Relationships and dependencies between applications, orchestration/choreography of services, consistency and completeness, reduction of complexity
Purpose Designing
Scope Multiple layer/Multiple aspect
Elements Location, Application component/collaboration, Application interface, Application process/function/interaction, Application event, Application service, Data object

Application Cooperation Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Application Cooperation Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Application Cooperation Viewpoint Example

Application Usage Viewpoint

What is Application Usage Viewpoint?

The application usage viewpoint shows how applications work together to support business processes, and how applications are used by other applications. It can be used to identify the services needed by business processes and other applications, or in designing business processes by describing the services that are available.

The table below describes Application Usage Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Enterprise, process, and application architects, operational managers
Concerns Consistency and completeness, reduction of complexity
Purpose Designing, deciding
Scope Multiple layer/Multiple aspect
Elements Business actor, Business role, Business collaboration, Business process/function/interaction, Business event, Business object, Application component/collaboration, Application interface, Application process/function/interaction, Application event, Application service, Data object

Application Usage Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Application Usage Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Application Usage Viewpoint Example

Implementation and Deployment Viewpoint

What is Implementation and Deployment Viewpoint?

The implementation and deployment viewpoint shows the realization of applications on the infrastructure. This involves the mapping of applications and components onto artifacts, and the mapping of the information used by these applications and components onto the underlying storage infrastructure.

The table below describes Implementation and Deployment Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Application and domain architects
Concerns Structure of application platforms and how they relate to supporting technology
Purpose Designing, deciding
Scope Multiple layer/Multiple aspect
Elements Application component/collaboration, Application interface, Application process/function/interaction, Application event, Application service, Data object, System software, Technology interface, Path, Technology process/function/interaction, Technology service, Artifact

Implementation and Deployment Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Implementation and Deployment Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Implementation and Deployment Viewpoint Example

Technology Viewpoint

What is Technology Viewpoint?

The technology viewpoint shows how the application layer is supported by the software and hardware technology elements like physical devices, networks, or system software (e.g., O/S, databases, and middleware).

The table below describes Technology Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Infrastructure architects, operational managers
Concerns Stability, security, dependencies, costs of the infrastructure
Purpose Designing
Scope Single layer/Multiple aspect
Elements Location, Node, Technology collaboration, Device, System software, Technology interface, Communication network, Path, Technology process/function/interaction, Technology service, Technology event, Artifact

Technology Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Technology Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Technology Viewpoint Example

Technology Usage Viewpoint

What is Technology Usage Viewpoint?

The technology usage viewpoint shows how applications are supported by the software and hardware technology. This viewpoint is commonly applied when there is a need of performance or scalability analysis, since it relates the physical infrastructure to the logical world of applications.

The table below describes Technology Usage Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Application, infrastructure architects, operational managers
Concerns Dependencies, performance, scalability
Purpose Designing
Scope Multiple layer/Multiple aspect
Elements Application component/collaboration, Application process/function/interaction, Application event, Data object, Node, Device, Technology collaboration, System software, Technology interface, Communication network, Path, Technology process/function/interaction, Technology service, Technology event, Artifact

Technology Usage Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Technology Usage Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Technology Usage Viewpoint Example

Information Structure Viewpoint

What is Information Structure Viewpoint?

The information structure viewpoint is works like a traditional information models commonly created in developing information system. The viewpoint shows the structure of the information used in the enterprise. It may also show how the information at the business level is represented at the application level in the form of the data structures used there, and how these are then mapped onto the underlying technology infrastructure.

The table below describes Information Structure Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Domain and information architects
Concerns Structure and dependencies of the used data and information, consistency and completeness
Purpose Designing
Scope Multiple layer/Single aspect
Elements Business object, Representation, Data object, Artifact, Meaning

Information Structure Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Information Structure Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Information Structure Viewpoint Example

Service Realization Viewpoint

What is Service Realization Viewpoint?

The service realization viewpoint models how business services are realized by the underlying processes / application components.

The table below describes Service Realization Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Process and domain architects, product and operational managers
Concerns Added-value of business processes, consistency and completeness, responsibilities
Purpose Designing, deciding
Scope Multiple layer/Multiple aspect
Elements Business actor, Business role, Business collaboration, Business interface, Business process/function/interaction, Business event, Business service, Business object, Representation, Application component/collaboration, Application interface, Application process/function/interaction, Application event, Application service, Data object

Service Realization Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Service Realization Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Service Realization Viewpoint Example

Physical Viewpoint

What is Physical Viewpoint?

The physical viewpoint shows the equipment that can create, use, store, move, or transform materials, and how the equipment is connected via the distribution network, and what other active elements are assigned to the equipment.

The table below describes Physical Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Infrastructure architects, operational managers
Concerns Relationships and dependencies of the physical environment and how this relates to IT infrastructure
Purpose Designing
Scope Multiple layer/Multiple aspect
Elements Location, Node, Device, Equipment, Facility, Path, Communication network, Distribution network, Material

Physical Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Physical Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Physical Viewpoint Example

Layered Viewpoint

What is Layered Viewpoint?

The layered viewpoint presents a bird-eye view of core elements of all layers and aspects of an Enterprise Architecture. The structural principle behind a fully layered viewpoint is that each dedicated layer exposes, by means of the "realization" relationship, a layer of services, which are further on "serving" the next dedicated layer. With this viewpoint, you can easily separate the internal structure and organization of a dedicated layer from its externally observable behavior expressed as the service layer that the dedicated layer realizes.

The table below describes Layered Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Enterprise, process, application, infrastructure, and domain architects
Concerns Consistency, reduction of complexity, impact of change, flexibility
Purpose Designing, deciding, informing
Scope Multiple layer/Multiple aspect
Elements <All core elements and all relationships are permitted in this viewpoint.>

Layered Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Layered Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Layered Viewpoint Example

Motivation Viewpoints

The ArchiMate motivation viewpoints defined a set of example viewpoints for modeling the motivational aspects of an enterprise architecture.

In the coming sections, we will go over all the ArchiMate motivation viewpoints in detail.

Stakeholder Viewpoint

What is Stakeholder Viewpoint?

The stakeholder viewpoint is used to model the stakeholders, drivers of changes (both internal and external), and the assessments of these drivers, in terms of SWOT. It may also be used to model the links to the initial goals that address these concerns and assessments. These goals form the basis for the requirements engineering process, including goal refinement, contribution and conflict analysis, and the derivation of requirements that realize the goals.

The table below describes Stakeholder Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Stakeholders, business managers, enterprise and ICT architects, business analysts, requirements managers
Concerns Architecture mission and strategy, motivation
Purpose Designing, deciding, informing
Scope Motivation
Elements Stakeholder, Driver, Assessment, Goal, Outcome

Stakeholder Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Stakeholder Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Stakeholder Viewpoint Example

Goal Realization Viewpoint

What is Goal Realization Viewpoint?

The goal realization viewpoint models the refinement of high level goals into more specific goals, and the refinement of these specific goals further into requirements or constraints. The refinement of goals into sub-goals is modeled using the aggregation, while the refinement of goals into requirements is modeled using the realization.

The table below describes Goal Realization Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Stakeholders, business managers, enterprise and ICT architects, business analysts, requirements managers
Concerns Architecture mission, strategy and tactics, motivation
Purpose Designing, deciding
Scope Motivation
Elements Goal, Principle, Requirement, Constraint, Outcome

Goal Realization Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Goal Realization Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Goal Realization Viewpoint Example

Requirements Realization Viewpoint

What is Requirements Realization Viewpoint?

The requirements realization viewpoint shows the realization of requirements by core elements such as business actors, business services, business processes, application services, application components, etc. Typically, the requirements result from the goal refinement viewpoint.

The table below describes Requirements Realization Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Enterprise and ICT architects, business analysts, requirements managers
Concerns Architecture strategy and tactics, motivation
Purpose Designing, deciding, informing
Scope Motivation
Elements Goal, Requirement/constraint, Outcome, Value, Meaning, Core element

Requirements Realization Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Requirements Realization Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Requirements Realization Viewpoint Example

Motivation Viewpoint

What is Motivation Viewpoint?

The motivation viewpoint can be used to present a complete or partial overview of the motivation aspect by relating stakeholders, their primary goals, the principles that are applied, and the main requirements on services, processes, applications, and objects.

The table below describes Motivation Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Enterprise and ICT architects, business analysts, requirements managers
Concerns Architecture strategy and tactics, motivation
Purpose Designing, deciding, informing
Scope Motivation
Elements Stakeholder, Driver, Assessment, Goal, Principle, Requirement, Constraint, Outcome, Value, Meaning

Motivation Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Motivation Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Motivation Viewpoint Example

Strategy Viewpoints

The ArchiMate strategy viewpoints defined a number of example viewpoints for use in modeling the strategic aspects of the enterprise. They can be used in modeling the high-level strategic direction and make-up of the enterprise.

In the coming sections, we will go over all the ArchiMate strategy viewpoints in detail.

Strategy Viewpoint

What is Strategy Viewpoint?

The capability map viewpoint presents a structured overview of the capabilities of the enterprise. A capability map typically shows two or three levels of capabilities across the entire enterprise. Very often, capability map viewpoint is to be used as a heat map.

The table below describes Strategy Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders CxOs, business managers, enterprise and business architects
Concerns Strategy development
Purpose Designing, deciding
Scope Strategy
Elements Course of action, Capability, Resource, Outcome

Strategy Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Strategy Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Strategy Viewpoint Example

Capability Map Viewpoint

What is Capability Map Viewpoint?

The capability map viewpoint allows the business architect to create a structured overview of the capabilities of the enterprise. A capability map typically shows two or three levels of capabilities across the entire enterprise. It can, for example, be used as a heat map to identify areas of investment. In some cases, a capability map may also show specific outcomes delivered by these capabilities.

The table below describes Capability Map Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Business managers, enterprise and business architects
Concerns Architecture strategy and tactics, motivation
Purpose Designing, deciding
Scope Strategy
Elements Outcome, Capability, Resource

Capability Map Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Capability Map Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Capability Map Viewpoint Example

Outcome Realization Viewpoint

What is Outcome Realization Viewpoint?

The outcome realization viewpoint is used to show how the highest-level, business-oriented results are produced by the capabilities and underlying core elements.

The table below describes Outcome Realization Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Business managers, enterprise and business architects
Concerns Business-oriented results
Purpose Designing, deciding
Scope Strategy
Elements Capability, Resource, Outcome, Value, Meaning, Core element

Outcome Realization Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Outcome Realization Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Output Realization Viewpoint Example

Resource Map Viewpoint

What is Resource Map Viewpoint?

The resource map viewpoint shows a structured overview of the resources of the enterprise. A resource map typically involves two or three levels of resources across the entire enterprise. It can be used as a heat map to identify areas of investment.

The table below describes Resource Map Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Business managers, enterprise and business architects
Concerns Architecture strategy and tactics, motivation
Purpose Designing, deciding
Scope Strategy
Elements Resource, Capability, Work package

Resource Map Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Resource Map Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Resource Map Viewpoint Example

Implementation and Migration Viewpoints

The ArchiMate implementation and migration viewpoints are defined for modeling the management of architecture change, the transition from baseline to target architecture and relationships between programs and projects.

In the coming sections, we will go over all the ArchiMate implementation and migration viewpoints in detail.

Project Viewpoint

What is Project Viewpoint?

A project viewpoint is primarily used to shows the management of architecture change, which involves the modeling of projects to be managed, governed and delivered during the migration from baseline to target architectural.

The table below describes Project Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders (operational) managers, enterprise and ICT architects, employees, shareholders
Concerns Architecture vision and policies, motivation
Purpose Deciding, informing
Scope Implementation and Migration
Elements Goal, Work package, Implementation event, Deliverable, Business actor, Business role

Project Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Project Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Project Viewpoint Example

Migration Viewpoint

What is Migration Viewpoint?

The migration viewpoint entails models and concepts that can be used for specifying the transition from an existing architecture to a desired architecture.

The table below describes Migration Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders Enterprise architects, process architects, application architects, infrastructure architects and domain architects, employees, shareholders
Concerns History of models
Purpose Designing, deciding, informing
Scope Implementation and Migration
Elements Plateau, Gap

Migration Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Migration Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Migration Viewpoint Example

Implementation and Migration Viewpoint

What is Implementation and Migration Viewpoint?

The implementation and migration viewpoint is used to relate programs and projects to the parts of the architecture that they implement. This view allows modeling of the scope of programs, projects, project activities in terms of the plateaus that are realized or the individual architecture elements that are affected.

The table below describes Implementation and Migration Viewpoint in more detail.

Stakeholders (operational) managers, enterprise and ICT architects, employees, shareholders
Concerns Architecture vision and policies, motivation
Purpose Deciding, informing
Scope Multiple layer/Multiple aspect
Elements Goal, Requirement, Constraint, Work package, Implementation event, Deliverable, Plateau, Gap, Business actor, Business role, Location, Core element

Implementation and Migration Viewpoint Example

The figure below shows an ArchiMate diagram drawn under the Implementation and Migration Viewpoint.

ArchiMate Implementaiton and Migration Viewpoint Example

All the ArchiMate diagram examples in this guide are drawn with Visual Paradigm 's certified ArchiMate tool

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